Magnetohydrodynamics(MHD) is a vital method to simulate high density plasma which is not suitable for PIC method.
MHD method is an approximate description method which consider plasma as continuous medium with electric current, i.e. magnetofluid that can be described by Navier-Stokes equations and Maxwell equations. The method is concerned with the average state of all particles in the fluid element, rather than the properties of individual particles. Compared with traditional fluid, magnetofluid carry the current which can generate electromagnetic force by interacting with extern magnetic field or induced magnetic field. Electromagnetic interactions within the plasma are quite complex and are reflected in the fluid motion equations and energy equations through the Lorentz force and Joule heating. Similarly, the change of the flow state affects the distribution of the current and magnetic field inside the plasma. Therefore, the coupling of the electromagnetic field and the flow field in the magnetofluid is very important.
MHD method is suitable for high number density plasma because of fluid approximate. In addition, the macroscopic characteristics of this method greatly reduce the computing resources. When research only concern the macroscopic parameter as plasma density, magnetofluid velocity and temperature, MHD method is a nice choice.
In our lab, MHD method is widely used to simulate MPD thruster and cathodes, etc.
Azimuthal velocity distribution of af-mpdt
 Cao Lehui,Wu Peng, Luo Zihao. Analysis of Flowfield Characteristics in Numerical Simulation of Self-Field Magnetoplasmadynamic Thruster (In Chinese), Flight Control & Detection
 LUO Zihao, CAO Shuai, REN Junxue, TANG Haibin.2D Hybrid PIC Simulation of Plasma Flow in a Magnetic Field-Free Discharge Device (In Chinese), Chinese Conference of Elecric Propulsion, 2019, Nanjing, China
 LUO Zihao, CAO Lehui , MAO Renfan, REN Junxue, TANG Haibin. Coupled Fluid Thermal Model for the analysis of Hollow Cathode lifetime (In Chinese), Chinese Conference of Elecric Propulsion, 2022, Xi’an, China
(Lastly Updated in September, 2022)